Which Agreements Were Reached At Yalta
The initiative to convene a second “Big Three” conference came from Roosevelt, who had hoped for a meeting before the US presidential elections in November 1944, but later pushed for a meeting in early 1945 at a neutral location in the Mediterranean. Malta, Cyprus and Athens have been proposed. Stalin, who insisted that his doctors oppose long journeys, rejected these options.  Instead, he suggested meeting instead in the Black Sea city of Yalta in Crimea. Fear of Stalin`s plane also contributed to this decision.  Yet Stalin formally referred to Roosevelt as the “host” of the conference; All plenary sessions should take place in the American accommodation of the Livadia Palace, and Roosevelt, without exception, sits in the center of the group photos (all taken by Roosevelt`s official photographer). In addition to the settlement of Germany and Poland, the Potsdam negotiators agreed to the creation of a Council of Foreign Ministers to develop peace agreements with Germany`s former allies on behalf of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and China. Conference participants also agreed to revise the 1936 Montreux Convention, which gave Turkey exclusive control of the Strait of Turkey. In addition, the United States, Britain and China issued the “Potsdam Declaration,” which threatened Japan with “immediate and total destruction” if it did not surrender immediately (the Soviet Union did not sign the declaration because it had yet to declared war on Japan). Poland has proved to be an intractable problem. Churchill and Roosevelt failed to convince Stalin to recognize the exiled government based in London, but he continued to support the government set up by the Soviet Union in Lublin. At most, Stalin`s Western leaders ensured the obligation to hold free and unimpeded elections as quickly as possible.
No decision was taken on the Yalta conference, Allied forces in the West had liberated all of France and Belgium and fought on Germany`s western border. To the east, Soviet troops were 65 km from Berlin, having already repelled the Germans from Poland, Romania and Bulgaria. There were no more questions about the German defeat. It was the new form of post-war Europe.    Poland was the first item on the Soviet agenda. Stalin said that “for the Soviet government, the question of Poland is a matter of honor” and security because Poland has served as a historic corridor for forces trying to invade Russia.  In addition, Stalin told history: “Because the Russians had sinned strongly against Poland,” “the Soviet government tried to atone for these sins.”  Stalin concluded that “Poland must be strong” and that “the Soviet Union is interested in creating a powerful, free and independent Poland.” As a result, Stalin stated that the demands of the Polish government in exile are not negotiable: the Soviet Union would retain the territory of eastern Poland, which it had already annexed in 1939, and Poland should be compensated by the expansion of its western borders at the expense of Germany. Contrary to his previously proclaimed position, Stalin promised free elections in Poland, although he recently had one of its members in the Soviet provisional government occupied by the Red Army. Foreign Minister Antony Eden informed the House of Commons of the decisions taken shortly after his return to London in Tehran. In a postponement debate on 14 and 15 December 1943, he spoke of the “total agreement” reached on the scale and timing of future military operations against Germany, adding that they would soon be “taken to the battlefields of battle”.